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Conference Abstracts


Intersection of Faith and Business

Program Abbreviations

ACC = Accounting, ECO = Economics, ENT = Entrepreneurship, ETH = Ethics, FAI = Faith Integration, FIN = Finance,

HEA = Higher Education Administration, HRM = Human Resource Management, LDR = Leadership, MGT = Management,

MKT = Marketing, RES = Research, STR = Strategy, TGO = Teaching Graduate & Online, TTU = Teaching Traditional Undergraduate

[ACC-01] Using Stories to Teach Accounting Students about Ethical Dilemmas and Faith Integration (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)
Tara Lambert, Whitworth University
Michelle Li-Kuehne, Whitworth University
Margie LaShaw, Whitworth University
This paper presents a unique method of creating awareness of white-collar crime through allowing students to interact with actual criminals. It draws on methods of storytelling and reflecting in helping students better understand fraud. Students are encouraged to utilize their faith in navigating potential pressures in the business world.

[ECO-02] The Economics of the Flood (Concurrent Session)
David Tucker, The College of Idaho
Thomas De Berry, Freed-Hardeman University
Scripture is used to present basic economic concepts in a moral context. Scarcity, division of labor, and the law of comparative advantage are all present in the post-lapsarian, prediluvian world. Prosperity is achieved. However, violent relationships are contrary to the nature of God. Therefore, He sent the Flood.

[ECO-04] The Benevolent Social Planner and the Christian Worldview (Concurrent Session)
David Arnott, Dallas Baptist University
The U.S. economy is experiencing a centralization of power that is not consistent with the Christian Worldview and is an indication of economic humanism. This paper analyzes the centralization of economic power from a Christian worldview, using scriptural contexts as guideposts.

[ECO-06] Education, Income Inequality, and Mortality: A Study of Indonesian Provinces (Poster)
Colene Trent, Union University
Raymond Chahyadi, Iowa State University
Studies of Indonesian mortality rates are rare within the economics literature. This paper uses 2020 census data of Indonesian provinces to analyze education, inequality, the unemployment rate, sex, and GDP per capita as predictors of mortality. Unlike in developed countries, education is found to be an insignificant predictor of mortality.

[ENT-01] Assessing the Influence of the Christian Faith in Women Entrepreneurs: A Study of Decision Processes to Enter the Formal Economy in Emerging Economies (Concurrent Session)
M. Isabella Cavalcanti Junqueira, LeTourneau University
Allan Discua Cruz, The University of Lancaster
Li Xiao, The University of Lancester
This paper explores the influence of the Christian faith in the decision-making process of women entrepreneurs in São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we focus on an underdeveloped premise of women entrepreneurs seeking financial support and other resources to start and grow their ventures in a formal economy.

[ENT-02] Case Study Examination of Entrepreneurial Responses to a COVID-19 Pandemic Shutdown: Did Entrepreneurial Resilience Contribute to Lower-Than-Expected Business Closures? (Concurrent Session)
Carolyn Davis, Morehouse College
Using Exploratory Case Study Analysis, two Christian entrepreneurs provide initial insights on resilience strategies used during the COVID crisis. Insights are compared to 24 additional interviews.

[ENT-03] A Case for Faith-Based Entrepreneurship (Concurrent Session)
Jordan Terranova, Biola University
Evan Kubicek, Eastern Illinois University
Wlamir Xavier, Biola University
This case study analyzes a firm created in a Christian-averse country to simultaneously achieve social and faith impact in an economically viable way. We developed a conceptual model consisting of three pillars that use economic, social, and faith outcomes to understand the decision-making process of the firm.

[ETH-01] Using Affective Influences in the Ethics Classroom as a Tool for Student Formation (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)
Josh Sauerwein, Lubbock Christian University
The ethics classroom addresses normative approaches to decision-making. Moore and Gino (2015) suggest students should also be introduced to affective, non-deliberative influences. This presentation provides an example of how this literature was employed in an ethics classroom to help students understand potential derailments and construct guardrails informed by their faith.

[ETH-05] Building a Culture of Character in Our Students Using the Leadership Character Development Model: A Program-wide, Integrated, and Foundational Approach (Panel)
Glenn Bryan, Ohio Wesleyan University
Jeff Fawcett, Grace College
Melanie Timmerman, Mount Vernon Nazarene University
Teaching ethics in business programs is required, expected, and the right thing to do. Unfortunately, ethics teaching is fragmented, ineffective, and boring. The Leadership Character Development model is an integrated approach presented as one viable solution. Investigate the merits of a program-wide program to build of a culture of character.

[FAI-01] Perceptions of Faith and Work by Christian Undergraduate Business Majors (Poster)
Wendy Martin, Trinity International University
Adele Harrison, California Baptist University
While the Faith at Work movement has addressed the spiritual value of work in business, do undergraduates understand or ascribe to these perspectives? This study investigates the motivations of undergraduates studying business at Christian colleges and universities, and their views on the value of work in business versus vocational ministry.

[FAI-02] Justifying Work in Business (Concurrent Session)
Wendy Martin, Trinity International University
This paper explores the fallacy that as Christians in business we need to justify, i.e. rationalize, our work in the marketplace. Instead, work in business is already justified, i.e. righteous, in the eyes of God and we can bless society as we act as stewards in our vocations.

[FAI-03] How Students Shine Their "Light" in the Workplace (Concurrent Session)
Kimberly Hogelucht, Point Loma Nazarene University
Business students at a small private Christian university have found ways to demonstrate their Christ-like values through their actions in the workplace. Along with feedback from employers, this paper includes testimonials from graduates and current students to support how they have been able to shine their “light” in the workplace.

[FAI-04] Faith in Business Organizations (Concurrent Session)
Min-Dong Paul Lee, Wheaton College
Hannah Stolze, Lipscomb University
Denise Daniels, Wheaton College
In this study, we examine how faith is integrated in business organizations through the eyes of internal stakeholders using a grounded theory approach. The findings show that faith can be deeply integrated even in for-profit organizations, and the employees recognize largely three manifestations of faith: embodied, institutionalized, and internalized faith.

[FAI-06] Christian Business Leaders and Earth Care (Concurrent Session)
Andy Borchers, Lipscomb University
Tim Creel, Lipscomb University
Mark Jobe, Lipscomb University
Christians in the business world face multiple crises and competing goals, Scripture reminds us of the need to care for the planet that God has created. In this paper, the authors build on the work of White to advance five reasons why Christian business leaders should care about the planet.


[FAI-07] Organizational Research Methods of Integration: Contributions to Biblical Integration in Business (Concurrent Session)
Jennifer Dose, Messiah University
In our role as Christian scholars, faith integration is central to our work. However, faith integration exists within a larger research methodology that can provide insights for our own more focused research agenda. This paper seeks to provide insight into faith integration techniques through exploration of secular integration methods.

[FAI-08] Acme Southeast Strategies for the Continuation of a Faith-based Culture in Corporate Expansion (Poster)
Hannah Stolze, Lipscomb University
Denise Daniels, Wheaton College
Min-Dong Paul Lee, Wheaton College
This working paper is a pedagogical case to facilitate questions around faith integration and corporate change. Organizational culture is not self-sustaining but needs to be intentionally embodied and transmitted. A central concern is preserving culture and values: what is the right succession plan and organizational structure for this company?

[FAI-09] Service-Learning: Learning to Do Good (Concurrent Session)
James Dorsett, California Institute of Advanced Management
Isaiah’s admonition to “do good” is reflected in the development and testing of a new service-learning pedagogy. The purpose and rationale tie this pedagogy to the Institute’s vision, mission and alignment with Peter Drucker’s philosophies taught at the Institute. Service-learning also connects to the Institute’s other experiential, high impact practices.

[FAI-10] Redeeming COVID: Response, Reset, and Renewal (Concurrent Session)
Becky Havens, Point Loma Nazarene University
Julia Underwood, California Institute of Advanced Management
In the past year, faculty and students have experienced the most difficult academic year in memory. Attention to physical, mental, and spiritual health have required new coping mechanisms. This session will contemplate lessons learned and generate new ways to think about reset and renewal as we move forward.

[FAI-11] Wisdom-Based Business Strategy: Drawing from Wisdom Traditions to Inform Strategic Business Ethics (Concurrent Session)
Hannah Stolze, Lipscomb University
Wisdom based business builds on the emerging wisdom literature in the management field of study to explore the ancient literary texts to discover opportunities for application in modern day business practice. The findings are integrated with the themes of the analysis into a framework of wisdom for strategic business ethics.

[FIN-01] Financial Education and Peer-to-Peer Coaching at Christian Institutions in Higher Education (Concurrent Session)
Heather Chadwick, Charleston Southern University
Larry Lindsay, Ron Blue Institute
Boyce Smith, Charleston Southern University
The need for financial literacy education has become recognized by universities recently due to the United States Financial Literacy and Education Commission. This paper details how the Ron Blue Institute at Indiana Wesleyan University and Charleston Southern University have addressed these recommendations with an emphasis on student peer coaching practices.

[FIN-03] Faith Influences Finances? An Empirical-Based Working Paper (Concurrent Session)
Julie Szendrey, Walsh University
Laci Fiala, Hiram College
Does an individual’s faith relate to how they manage their personal finances? Using a nationally representative sample of 1,245 young adults aged 18-34, several statistically significant relationships were noted between religiousness (both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity), faith traditions, and financial behaviors of cash, credit, savings and investments, and insurance management.

[HEA-01] From Survival to Success: Leveraging Innovation and Change in Private Higher Education in Response to Today’s Challenging Competitive Environment (Panel)
Robert Roller, LeTourneau University
David Houghton, Oklahoma Baptist University
Julia Underwood, California Institute of Applied Management
Steven Bovee, Roberts Wesleyan College
Ronald Mahurin, Design Group International
Brett Andrews, Oklahoma Wesleyan University
The current environment confronting private higher education calls for competitive positioning, change, and innovation that is much more purpose-driven, strategic, customer-centric, proactive, revolutionary, and abrupt than universities are accustomed to. Survival will require leveraging innovation and change in new ways; moving from survival to success will require more significant change.

[HEA-02] Marketing the Mission: An Examination of Public Rhetoric Describing Business Programs at Christian Colleges and Universities (Poster)
Michael Williams, Pepperdine University
David Smith, Pepperdine University
This study compares the public rhetoric describing Christian business programs, online and on ground, across individual institutions by examining the mission, vision, and information collected on public-facing web pages. Findings are then analyzed to identify patterns of rhetoric that diverge between residential undergraduate, online, and graduate programs.

[HEA-03] The Rapid Move to Online Education During COVID-19: A Lutheran Higher Education Perspective (Poster)
Walter Griffin, Concordia University Wisconsin
This paper explores the role of online Lutheran higher education in response to the global coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Several constructs were uncovered when respondents discussed the future of online education: student engagement in online education, the use of online technology, university/college resources for online education, and communication in online learning.

[HRM-01] A Theology of Human Resource Management (Concurrent Session)
Matt Fuss, Geneva College
This essay will delve into the ways in which a Christian worldview informs and directs a businessperson’s decisions, specifically in human resource management, and in so doing, will endeavor to articulate a theology of human resource management.

[HRM-02] Improving Our Cultural Intelligence in God’s Culturally and Racially Diverse World (Concurrent Session)
Eveline Lewis, Evangel University
This presentation seeks to start a conversation on diversity and cultural intelligence (CQ) from Christian perspectives. The discussion includes the importance of CQ in our current diverse business world, the sources of CQ, and how to improve CQ. Personal stories and examples from an Asian American perspective will be included.

[LDR-01] The CHANGED Organization: Using the Leadership Values of 1 Peter 5 to Minimize Resistance and Facilitate Change (Concurrent Session)
Mark Bell, Wayland Baptist University
Janet Jones, Wayland Baptist University
Samantha Murray, Wayland Baptist University
From the values found in 1 Peter 5:1-5, seven leadership proverbs are derived for contemporary leader application in creating a CHANGED organization. An action plan modeling the effective implementation of those seven values as related to follower impediments, resistance, and each Lewin change phase is presented.

[LDR-03] Nothing New Under the Sun: The Good, Bad, and Ugly of Power and Authority (Poster)
Robert Holbrook, Ohio University
Adam Holbrook, Union University
Power and authority are under scrutiny. Yet they are essential to leadership and necessary for organizations and society to function properly. Secular and biblical examples illustrate both proper use and abuse. Scripture is examined for teachings about using and responding to these. We offer practical suggestions for leaders and followers.

[LDR-04] Spiritual Sowing in the Secular Marketplace (Concurrent Session)
Chris Langford, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
This paper develops a spiritual sowing model that conceptualizes the employee spiritual formation as a process involving the co-laboring with the Holy Spirit in strengthening the triadic relationship existing between God, self, and others, based on the practices of service, observation, and witnessing.

[LDR-05] The Temptations of Leadership: How Faith Protects Leaders (and their Followers) from Themselves (Concurrent Session)
Darin Gerdes, Charleston Southern University
Justin Irving, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
Maxwell Rollins, Charleston Southern University
Matt Fuss, Geneva College
Kenny Embry, St. Leo College
Specific temptations are more powerfully appealing to leaders because of the position of leadership. When leaders engage in these temptations (e.g., destructive leadership tyrannical, abusive, etc.), predictable dysfunctions result. Applying faith protects followers, the interests of the organization, and ultimately the leader too.\

[LDR-06] Some Observations About Christ’s Leadership (Concurrent Session)
Darin Gerdes, Charleston Southern University
Adam Caplinger, Geneva College
Scholars increasingly recognize the importance of leadership. Christian scholars who teach management are particularly interested in the intersection of their faith and the academic discipline of leadership. This paper focuses on the academic scholarship concerning the leadership of Jesus Christ to better understand how his life and ministry inform our understanding of leadership.

[MGT-01] Christian Virtues as a Foundation for Work-Family Positive Spillover (Concurrent Session)
Brad Gatlin, John Brown University
Examines work-family positive spillover (WFPS), proposes causal relationships from Christian virtues in supervisors to WFPS in employees, and argues for attention to the role a supervisor plays in the home life of the employee. The Christian virtues of kindness, compassion, and humility are proposed as drivers of positive spillover.

[MGT-02] Baptismal Imagination: How Worship Practices Can Inform Business Practices (Concurrent Session)
Peter Snyder, Calvin University
Todd Cioffi, Calvin University
Business practices frequently are limited in their perspective and ignore moral aspects of their activities, instead focusing on financial or political ends. Drawing on practice and moral imagination theories, this paper argues that practices of the church, specifically baptism, can provide insights that broaden how business practitioners engage in work.

[MGT-03] Can an Organization Love? (Poster)
William Andrews, Stetson University
This manuscript proposes the Humanitarian Organizational Development Matrix by which critical human development milestones can be identified, operationalized, and pursued in the organizational context. Based on Erikson’s (1950) work on psycho-social development, the author asserts that a Loving Organization is committed to developing the Essential Humanness of its employees.


[MGT-04] Disrupting the Dysfunction: Workplace Spirituality as a Moderator of the Effects of Dispositional Influences on Job Satisfaction (Concurrent Session)
Jeffery D. Houghton, West Virginia University
Luke A. Langlinais, West Virginia University
Richard A. Oxarart, West Virginia University
Multigroup comparison analysis is used to compare a secular work sample and a sample from an overtly spiritual workplace. The findings suggest that workplace spirituality attenuates the negative effect that dispositional qualities have on job satisfaction.


[MKT-01] A Qualitative Examination of Effective Marketing Strategies in Light of Current Trends to Support Social Enterprises (Poster)
Kenneth Minesinger, California Baptist University
Joe Putulowski, California Baptist University
Jacqueline Gustafson, California Baptist University
Philip Breitenbucher, California Baptist University
There seems to be increased interest from the consumers' perspective to support firms that focus on social enterprise practices as part of their mission, which may improve the organization's long-term success. This study aims to investigate whether consumers' have favorable reactions towards social enterprises. . . .

[MKT-02] Looks and Luxury: The Effects of Perceived Attractiveness on Women’s Luxury Beauty Purchases (Concurrent Session)
Holly Perleoni, Lee University
The heart of consumer behavior is to understand why people make the purchasing decisions they do. This study seeks to understand female consumption patterns in the realm of luxury spending and signaling theory.

[MKT-03] Mission Alignment Relevancy: The Role of Mission Alignment in Christian Evangelical Churches in the United States of America (Concurrent Session)
Lanelle Chase, Azusa Pacific University
Mike Wiese, Point Loma Nazarene University
Mission alignment matters. Using multiple regression analysis, this study analyzed mission alignment in Christian Evangelical churches in the United States. The study found mission alignment between activism-related operational activities and platform communications, digital communications. The importance of mission alignment to activities is underscored with important lessons for business educators.

[MKT-05] Investigating the Relationship Between Business and the Glory of God (Concurrent Session)
Kanghyun Yoon, University of Central Oklahoma
Christian businessmen would like to live for the glory of God. For this matter, after considering the essence of God’s purpose for creation in the beginning, this study investigates what it means to practice business while living for the glory of God, along with identifying various biblical principles.

[RES-01] Getting Published in a CBFA Journal: Opportunities and Requirements (Panel)
Andy Borchers, Lipscomb University
Larry Locke, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
Emmett Dulaney, Anderson University
The Christian Business Faculty Association publishes two annual journals (Journal of Biblical Integration in Business and Christian Business Academic Review). Participants will learn about each journal's focus and expectations. Editors will provide information on formatting articles, timing of submissions/publications, and guidance on acceptance criteria. Interested authors are encouraged to attend.

[STR-01] Do Christian CEOs Make a Difference? Empirical Evidence from the S&P 500 (Concurrent Session)
Daniel Slater, Union University
Robert Holbrook, Ohio University
Joseph Xu, Union University
This research draws on upper Echelons Theory, stewardship research, and Scriptural principles to argue that Christian CEOs are more likely to act as stewards resulting in positive firm outcomes. We test our hypotheses on the S&P 500 CEOs and find supporting results suggesting that indeed Christian CEOs make a difference.

[STR-03] Mitigating Human Trafficking through Faith-Based Employment (Concurrent Session)
Lauren Pinkston, Lipscomb University
Malia Leung, Freedom Business Alliance

Freedom Business Alliance has sought to standardize survivor care, financial models, and operational frameworks for businesses employing survivors of human trafficking. This presentation will invite faculty to engage with the "Freedom Businesses Movement" and offer pathways to intersect faith-based business with anti-human trafficking employment initiatives.

[TGO-01] Using Integration to Create Community in Online Classes (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)
Yvonne Smith, University of La Verne
Integration assignments can be used to create community in online classes. Theory and examples are used to show how assignments can simultaneously enhance integration skills and encourage community. Three types of assignments are considered: short discussions using biographical prompts, larger assignments requiring formal integration, and a final summary project.

[TTU-01] The Role of Faculty on Student Preparation for Career Success (Concurrent Session)
Jeff McHugh, Biola University
The purpose of this study was to examine current trends impacting college graduate employability, including the influence and role of faculty, relevant workplace skills and preparedness gaps as graduates enter the most challenging job market in decades.

[TTU-02] Value in Student Managed Investment Programs (Poster)
Peter Crabb, Northwest Nazarene University
Frederick Sutton, Northwest Nazarene University
Student Managed Investment Programs (SMIPs) continue to expand at colleges and universities. The purpose of this pedagogical session is to demonstrate various assessments that can be used for both the advancement of students and accreditation, identify sources for collaborative research between faculty advisors and member students, and promote student competitions.

[TTU-03] The HyFlex Model: Is It Never or Now for Higher Education in this High Stakes Post Covid-19 Market (Concurrent Session)
Trish Berg, Heidelberg University
Tanya Carson, Indiana University
The pandemic forced universities to transition quickly to remote learning. That modality included some fully online, some hybrid, and some Hyflex. The flexibility of the Hyflex model is attractive, but this presentation explores whether the flexibility it provides adds too many challenges for effective learning in the long run.

[TTU-04] Improving Classroom Effectiveness in Real-time Through Formative Feedback (Poster)
Julie Little, Taylor University
Mick Bates, Taylor University
Jody Hirschy, Taylor University
Jeff Sherlock, Taylor University
David Poucher, Taylor University
Amy Stucky, Taylor University
Discussion of the pilot launch of BoxScore, an electronic, real-time, feedback tool, used to gauge student comprehension in each class. The goal of this implementation was to shorten the feedback loop between student and instructor to improve teaching in real-time. Results of the pilot and next steps will be shared.

[TTU-05] Judge Not: Exposing the Beam of Implicit Bias in Our Own Eyes (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)
Robert Holbrook, Ohio University
Janice Pittman, Union University
William Nance, Union University
The Bible’s teachings on bias are clear – do not judge others. How are Christians doing on this important commandment? Our paper describes an activity for exploring implicit bias and teaching tips for dealing with bias in a biblical manner. Data are reported from use at a faith-based institution.

[TTU-06] Anxiety and the New Generation in College: What Can a Professor Do? (Concurrent Session)
Yvonne Smith, University of La Verne
The generation currently entering universities is fearful and anxious; the paper explores anxiety in relation to these students. We first examine anxiety using psychology, management, and the Scripture and then relate this to major characteristics of the iGeneration. The final section discusses classroom implementations.

[TTU-08] The TUG of War in Higher Education: The Potential Impact of Merging Traditional Undergraduate Students and Adult Learners in the Heutagogical Online Learning Environment and Directions for Future Research (Concurrent Session)
Trish Berg, Heidelberg University
Melanie Peddicord, John Brown University
The disruption of COVID-19 pushed universities to close on campus teaching and move fully to an online model. The modality change presented challenges as it involved merging of traditional undergraduate students (TUGs) and adult learners. This presentation explores the benefits and challenges of that merging in the long run.

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