ANNUAL CONFERENCE

THE 2022 CBFA ANNUAL CONFERENCE

Conference Abstracts

Cupbearers to Kings:

Empowering Students to Be Future Shapers

Program Abbreviations

ACC = Accounting, ECO = Economics, ENT = Entrepreneurship, ETH = Ethics, FAI = Faith Integration, FIN = Finance,

HEA = Higher Education Administration, HRM = Human Resource Management, LDR = Leadership, MGT = Management,

MKT = Marketing, RES = Research, STR = Strategy, TGO = Teaching Graduate & Online, TTU = Teaching Traditional Undergraduate

Click here for Concurrent Session Schedule.

[ACC-01] WE Ministry Accounting Services: Using Business Skills to Enhance Church Ministries (Panel)

Craig Walker, Oklahoma Baptist University

Rich Rudebock, Oklahoma Baptist University

David Greenwell, Oklahoma Baptist University

 

WE financially empowers constituents to transform lives with the Gospel. The Ministry Accounting Services platform provides church accounting and payroll services, contribution tracking, and online giving capabilities. Through a panel discussion with Ministry Accounting Services employees, we describe the services provided and the opportunities created for students to use business skills to help churches share the Gospel.

 

 [ECO-02] Finite Human Beings, Infinite God (Concurrent Session)

David Tucker, The College of Idaho

Craig Walker, Oklahoma Baptist University

Alesha Graves, Asbury University

 

The rational choice model lies between zero choice and infinite choice. Zero choices are those made for humans by the Creator. Infinite choice is only available to the Creator. The Creator transcends all categories that He created, and the Creator is immanent within all categories.

 

[ECO-03] An Internal Threat to US Monetary Stability:  A Critique of Modern Monetary Theory (Poster)

Anthony Sawyer, East Texas Baptist University

 

In current world affairs, the United States is experiencing increased competition from around the world to maintain its status as the world’s military and economic superpower. In the presence of such powerful external threats, it may seem odd to suggest that our greatest threat to monetary stability is internal. However, we may be facing a situation that brings to mind a phrase from a Pogo comic. “We have seen the enemy and he is us.” Modern Monetary Theory is a theory that could potentially lead to the unthinkable possibility of hyperinflation in the United States.

[ECO-04] Online Sports Gambling and College Students: A Christian Response to a Growing Industry (Concurrent Session)

Kimberly Reeve, The King’s College

Jared Pincin, The King’s College

 

Online sports gambling (OSG) is growing rapidly in the U.S., and it is increasingly targeting male college students. This paper presents an overview of the state of OSG and presents a biblical view of gambling and ways that Christian faculty can productively discuss OSG with students.

 [

[ECO-05] The Post-Christian Markets: Is the Moralizing Mission of the Scholastics in a Steady State? (Concurrent Session)

Christopher Warburton, Houghton College

 

Christian scholars (Scholastics) continued to teach the economic views of ancient Greek philosophers and the Scholastics presented market transactions from a moralizing perspective that was integrated into theological teachings. The normative connotations of Christian teachings and Roman law were transported over to the secular arrangements of market transactions, arguably suggesting an isomorphic existence of virtue in the post-Christian order. This paper analyzes the effects of the normative transposition after five centuries or more. Using information from 2000 to 2020 and unavoidable indicators of profits, income disparities, changes in the general price level, and factor analysis, the paper concludes that the moralizing ambitions of the Scholastics have been in a virtual steady state because of the human inclination to acquire money and maximize utility.

 

[ENT-01] Shaping the Future: Firm Competences, Entrepreneurial Mindsets, and the Mark of the Spiritual Entrepreneur (Concurrent Session)

Janice Black, Western Carolina University

Yvonne Smith, University of La Verne

 

Entrepreneurs directly shape the future, but what is the process? The authors outline the links between firm level competencies and a recent literature stream, entrepreneurial mindset. They then relate these to “cup bearing for the King of Kings,” using the Christian Model of Entrepreneurship (Goossen, 2004, 2013).

 

[ENT-02] How to Create an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem at a Christian University (Panel)

Jeff Haymond, Cedarville University

Diedrich Prigge, Cedarville University

Dan Sterkenburg, Cedarville University

Jon Austin, Cedarville University

 

In this panel, we will discuss the following aspects of Cedarville University’s (ongoing) effort to create an entrepreneurial ecosystem. While our approach leverages some of the unique talents of our faculty members, we believe the approach can be used as some part of the foundation for other Christian Universities, should they desire to pursue this approach, and that therefore, this panel discussion could be beneficial to CBFA faculty from other institutions.

 

[ENT-03] Is Business Ministry Only Western? Training International Cupbearers for the King of Kings (Concurrent Session)

Eveline Lewis, Evangel University

Yvonne Smith, University of La Verne

 

CBFA members are significantly interested in overseas ministries and have developed robust research streams in global business evangelism such as great commission companies and BAM. However, these models imply that westerners go overseas. This paper suggests an entrepreneurship model that could be utilized by Christians in every nation.

 

[ETH-01] Inter-Faith Application of Virtue Ethics in Business: How Can Christians and Muslims Shape Common Ground for Common Good? (Concurrent Session)

Vahagn Asatryan, Redeemer University

 

Surveys Christian and Muslim business ethics teachings and applications of virtue ethics from respective religions, incorporating Stakeholder Theory. Assesses (interviews) experiences of business professionals/entrepreneurs/students (joint Christian-Muslim) enrolled in virtue ethics workshops (Bulgaria), funded by CCCU grant. Discusses ways to encourage inter-faith approaches to ethical issues in workplaces with diverse religions.

 

[ETH-02] Ethics, Leadership and Global Environments (Poster)

Christina King-Johnson, Spartanburg Methodist College

 

This paper examines the ethical question of whether it is ethical for global companies to either fail to have a code of conduct or fail to enforce a code of conduct that addresses child labor within their supply chain.

 

[ETH-04] Shaping Future-shapers (Panel)

Matt Fuss, Geneva College

Curtis Songer, Geneva College

Denise Murphy Gerber, Geneva College

 

Faith-based, ethical living and working are integral elements of the business marketplace and areas with which Christian educators must lead the way for our students. Faith and ethics must be woven into the business department’s various sub-disciplines allowing for the learning and then empowerment of students so that they can become future shapers in their personal lives and in their careers.

 

[ETH-05] Jesus and Artificial Intelligence: A Look into Marketing Ethics of AI Usage (Concurrent Session)

Emory Hiott, Charleston Southern University

Darin Gerdes, Charleston Southern University

 

The emerging technology of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is currently the wild west in terms of ethics. This paper examines the question: "Would Jesus approve of companies using Artificial Intelligence?" By using the theory of Virtue Ethics, we compare and contrast the ways that AI is being used by organizations.

 

[FAI-01] Measuring Christian Faith Commitment Among Business Undergraduates: The Christian Faith Index (Concurrent Session)

Wendy Martin, Trinity International University

Adele Harris, California Baptist University

 

In a study of how students’ personal faith impacts faith integration, the authors surveyed 700+ CCCU business undergraduates yielding the Christian Faith Index (CFI) as a measure of spiritual maturity. The authors found the Index varied by area of emphasis as well as between universities.  The effect of CFI was noted on students’ understanding of the role of work and business, career aspirations, and appreciation of the spiritual value of their courses.  No differences were noted between different academic years, perhaps indicating that students are not growing in their spiritual maturity while enrolled in Christian higher education.

 

[FAI-02] Faith Integration Among Business Undergraduates at Christian Colleges: An Empirical Study (Concurrent Session)

Wendy Martin, Trinity International University

Adele Harris, California Baptist University

 

In order to assess how future business professionals envision their careers in business and the integration of their faith, the authors surveyed over 750 business majors at eleven CCCU institutions. Results showed students believed their careers could support both personal and faith goals. Students were less focused on pursuing more materialist goals. Participants endorsed both traditional and biblical views of work. In fact, students understood that work, in and of itself, could be ministry and a means to serve.  While students felt supported by their faculty, seniors felt less institutional support for their major in business than did freshman.

 

[FAI-03] Revolutionizing Organizations and Personal Lives: How the VBM is Opening Doors for Integration of Biblical Principles in the Workplace (Poster)

Jeffrey Boyce, Indiana Wesleyan University

Debbie Philpott, Indiana Wesleyan University

 

The Virtuous Business Model (VBM) is a key component of the innovative DBA program at Indiana Wesleyan University. This paper presents a high-level review of the VBM, and examples of how students connect core values, principles, academic, and experiential knowledge, with actual practice.

 

[FAI-04] Work as Recreation (Concurrent Session)

David Arnott, Dallas Baptist University

 

This paper uses scripture and the Christian Worldview to explain two views of work: The Christian view says work is a part of creation, and therefore is good. The non-Christian view is that work is part of the fall and is bad. The paper makes the conclusion that God wants us to work, to re-create His world.

 

[FAI-05] Biblical Race Theory (Concurrent Session)

Mark Bell, Wayland Baptist University

 

A qualitative method of hermeneutical analysis applied to various Old and New Testament texts with these results: 1) all persons share the same ultimate human ancestry, and recognizable differences in people based on geography, language, or physical features do not negate the common lineage 2) the preferred behavioral approach when interacting with other people involves self-regulation and considering the other person’s preferred treatment in the same situation. The author presents Biblical Race Theory–a concept indicating there is only one race, the human race, and members of that race should treat each other how they would like to be treated themselves.

 

[FIN-02] Peer-to-Peer Personal Finance Coaching at Christian Institutions of Higher Education (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)

Larry Lindsay, Ron Blue Institute

Heather Chadwick, Charleston Southern University

Boyce Smith, Charleston Southern University

 

The need for personal finance coaching of college students has become recognized by universities recently due to the United States Financial Literacy and Education Commission. This panel proposal discusses how the Ron Blue Institute at Indiana Wesleyan University developed the first Christian university peer-to-peer financial coaching program and has helped several other universities start such a program.

 

[FIN-03] Christianity and Corporate Outcomes: How is Religiosity Related to the Financial Outcomes of a Corporation? (Concurrent Session)

Lisa Kralina, Elmhurst University

 

Firms headquartered in locations with denser Christian populations are predicted to have lower levels of external financing, higher credit ratings, and higher cash holdings than firms in areas with lower levels of Christian populations. This study offers that Christianity supports prudent financial actions. Biblical principles of prudent risk-taking and financial planning are discussed.

 

[HEA-01] Leadership Essentials in the New Era in Christian Higher Education (Concurrent Session)

Robert Roller, LeTourneau University

Steven Bovee, Roberts Wesleyan College

Ronald Mahurin, Design Group International

Brett Andrews, Oklahoma Wesleyan University

 

We explore leadership in Christian universities by examining the leadership context and the complex interactions of leadership at different levels. We apply a model of leadership competencies to the challenges facing Christian higher education and examine the leadership implications to help Christian universities thrive and transform students.

 

[HEA-02] GPA Rising? Building a Model of Grade Inflation (Concurrent Session)

Mellani Day, Colorado Christian University

Bren Triplett, Colorado Christian University

Bob Brooks, Colorado Christian University

 

Grade inflation continues to be a concern in higher education. A model of 13 potential influencing factors is proposed and tested with grades that cover a 16-year period from a case university in the western U.S. The model is presented for others to adapt and use.

 

[LDR-01] Followership: A Model Based on Theory (Poster)

Crystal Brown, Regent University

 

This manuscript, an exploration is pursued of combining two theories that involve a leader’s perception of a follower’s level of engagement action as an independent variable affecting high level of support as a leader as a mediating variable that, in turn, affects long-term commitment and the dependent variable work engagement. Level of independent thinking is also a mediating between engagement action and long-term commitment and partnership with leader.

 

[LDR-02] Human Dignity: A First Principle of Leadership (Concurrent Session)

John Kyle, The Fellows Initiative

 

Human dignity is an important topic in leadership research that reflects inherent human value. This paper presents recent research that suggests a relationship between the inner values of leaders with respect to human dignity, and the perception followers have of leaders’ motivations. The paper concludes by suggesting an advancement to leadership theory and the practice of leadership development may be achieved through explicit incorporation of dignity concepts.

 

[LDR-03] Prisms of Leadership:  How Volodymyr Zelenskyy Demonstrated Empowering, Transformational, and Servant Leadership (Concurrent Session)

Darin Gerdes, Charleston Southern University

Justin Irving, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

Maxwell Rollins, Charleston Southern University

Connie Allison, Liberty University

 

Volodymyr Zelenskyy rose to become a household name after the Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24th, 2022. He has been widely praised for his leadership. In this paper, we seek to examine Zelenskyy’s first 100 days as a war-time leader through the lenses of empowering, transformational, and servant leadership.

 

[LDR-04] Leading People into Redemption: Applying the Redemptive Leadership Behaviors of Jesus (Poster)

Joe Bucci, Regent University

 

The working out of God’s redemptive plan is ongoing (Philippians 2:12-13). This work is fully demonstrated in offering 2nd chance opportunities to failed employees. We empower students to be future shapers by identifying the Redemptive Actions in the leadership of Christ. A model of His Redemptive Leadership is provided.

 

[LDR-05] The Leader as a Broker of Reality (Concurrent Session)

Crystal Brown, Regent University

 

The manuscript discusses the leader as a broker of reality with respect to an exegetical analysis of English Standard Version Bible, 2011, Revelation 2:1-7 and Reicher et al.’s (2005) social identity categorizations. Specifically, the juxtaposition of the churches at Smyrna and Ephesus are explored using John’s letters to each church.

 

[LDR-06] Psychological Contract Breach and The Great Resignation (Poster)

Helen Mitchell, Biola University

David Macauley, University of Texas at Tyler

Randy Stevensen, University of Texas at Tyler

 

Employees have certain unwritten expectations of behavior, which is known as their ‘psychological contract.’ While it is not known for certain (but it is highly likely), broken psychological contracts and moral injury are, in part, driving what is known as the ‘Great Resignation.’ This paper addresses how broken psychological contracts and moral injury are contributing factors to employee resignations and employment turnover in the ‘Great Resignation' and what we can learn.

 

[MGT-02] Articulating Corporate Social Responsibility Through Workplace Policies and Practices: The Art of Caring for Employees’ Wellbeing (Poster)

Josephine Ganu, Adventist University of Africa

 

Every year, organizations appease their stakeholders by donating billions of dollars to society. This paper contends that an authentic socially responsible organization cares for the wellbeing of both external and internal stakeholders in equal measure. Through a review of literature, this article examines the concept of CSR in the context of care and employees’ wellbeing and develops a conceptual framework to show how organizations can improve employees’ overall wellbeing.

 

[MGT-03] Examining Motivational Factors’ Effects in Faith-Based Organizations (Concurrent Session)

Ronnie Chuang-Rang Gao, Trinity Western University

Kevin Sawatsky, Trinity Western University

 

Through a survey in four Christian universities or colleges in Canada, we empirically confirm that personal faith is positively related to job satisfaction among faith-based organization employees, but only among employees high in perceived fit. We also confirm that motivation fully mediates the relationship between perceived fit and job satisfaction. In addition, TL has a direct effect on job satisfaction and an indirect effect through the partial mediation of motivation.

 

[MGT-04] Christian Perspectives on Social Exchange Theory (Concurrent Session)

Carsten Hennings, Point Loma Nazarene University

 

Social Exchange Theory (SET) has been applied in various ways in the management literature. We describe key elements of the SET framework and its application in the literature of leadership and organizational behavior. These elements are investigated through several Christian perspectives which add nuance to SET theory and its application.

 

[MGT-05] On Earth as it is in Heaven: Exploring the Counter-Effect of CSR Promotion (Concurrent Session)

Julia Dare, Point Loma Nazarene University

 

This paper examines certain conditions under which a firm may initiate CSR and self-promotion of CSR. This research offers a unique viewpoint to extant literature that may aid stakeholders in valuing and interpreting the latter. Likewise, it may offer a novel signal of firm character, as well as evidence of the endurance of Scripture in business.

 

[MGT-06] Equipping the Cupbearers: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Supply Chain Career Selection Factors (Concurrent Session)

Mandy Morrell, Point Loma Nazarene University

 

This research determined the driving intrinsic and extrinsic factors in supply chain management career choice. This study proved beneficial to supply chain educators hoping to recruit students into supply chain and to practicing managers recruiting for supply chain roles.

 

[MGT-07] Breaking through the Secular Mold: How to Cultivate Responsible and Moral Leaders in the Age of Rationalization (Poster)

Richard Yang, William Jessup University

 

This paper describes the explores the essentials and foundations for true business success. The author teaches in areas International Business, Strategy, and Marketing. He describes from his extensive experience doing business in North America and Asia, and what it takes to build true success in business. His background in investment banking, law, and real estate and degrees in engineering, law, and MBA gives him a very varied perspective in doing business as a Christian.

[MKT-01] Exploring the Hidden Meaning of Marketing in the Creation Account (Concurrent Session)

Kanghyun Yoon, University of Central Oklahoma

 

This paper discusses one main issue: Can individual Christians and Christian firms live for the glory of God by practicing marketing activities from the biblical worldview? It is possible by reviewing if there exists any hidden meaning marketing in the creation account from the kingdom perspective.

 

[MKT-02] Toward Multi-Aspectual, Normative Marketing Theory: The Challenges of Definitions and Measurement (Concurrent Session)

Vahagn Asatryan, Redeemer University

 

Introduces a revised view of biblical normative marketing practice based on shalom. Discusses Christian philosophical framework of Herman Dooyeweerd’s Modal Aspects and applications for normative marketing theory development and shaping students’ thinking. Proposes research methods to examine practices and invites scholars-collaborators to develop a research program under CCCU’s Planning Grant.

 

[MKT-03] A Reconciliatory Approach to Marketing: A Case of the Marginalized (Concurrent Session)

Mauvalyn Bowen, Bethel University

 

This paper shares a vision for ways that marketing can be reconciliatory instead of adversarial, and God-honoring instead of self-glorifying. A case of the 'marginalized' is used to demonstrate the call for Christian educators to do some heavy lifting in presenting the discipline to students in ways that honors Christ.

 

[RES-01] Achieving Your Academic Journal Publishing Goals: An Insider View of the Academic Journal Editorial Process with Advice for Authors from Manuscript Reviewers and Advice for Reviewers from Manuscript Authors (Panel)

Larry Locke, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

Andy Borchers, Lipscomb University

Emmett Dulaney, Anderson University

 

Utilizing the CBFA’s own sponsored journals, the Journal of Biblical Integration in Business and the Christian Business Academy Review, the approach of this panel will be to examine academic writing from the standpoint of a peer reviewer, and to examine peer reviews from the standpoint of an academic author.

 

[RES-02a] On Becoming Cupbearers to Our Academic Colleagues: Alternative Publication Outlets for CBFA Members (Poster)

Andy Borchers, Lipscomb University

 

A representative from the Society for Case Research will present information about the organization’s journals to inform CBFA members about alternative publishing outlets. This presentation is meant to complement the regular CBFA journals panel and to suggest a path to meaningful scholarship for CBFA members.

 

[RES-02b] On Becoming Cupbearers to Our Academic Colleagues: Alternative Publication Outlets for CBFA Members (Poster)

Robert Holbrook, Ohio University

 

A representative from Management Teaching Review will present information about the journal to inform CBFA members about alternative publishing outlets. This presentation is meant to complement the regular CBFA journals panel and to suggest a path to meaningful scholarship for CBFA members.

 

[RES-03] How to Publish 95% of the Papers You Write (Panel)

Yvonne Smith, University of La Verne

David Burns, Kennesaw State University

 

Writing for journals is time-consuming, but necessary for our Christian vocation and general career.  A key is to be efficient, as well as effective, in publishing.  The workshop presents four techniques to streamline publication success.  The two presenters, who are full-time professors/administrators and have no special ability, have altogether published over 200 peer-reviewed papers. 

 

[TGO-02] Student Power and Influence in the Graduate Capstone Classroom: Experience-Based Best Practices for Empowering All Students to Be Future Shapers (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)

Joseph Kuvshinikov, Gannon University

 

This pedagogical paper considers intra- and inter-class power and influence dynamics exhibited by students in classes where students come to class with a variety of experiential, motivational, and knowledge backgrounds. Best practice equity and inclusivity leadership development strategies are presented. Status- and domain-specific knowledge, motivation, and power-dependence relationships are considered.

 

[TTU-02] How to Foster Psychological Safety for Students to Risk the Interpersonal Vulnerability of a Character-Building Exercise in the Classroom: Principles and an Empirical Test (Concurrent Session)

Andrew Herrity, California Baptist University

 

This session is on how to foster psychological safety for students to risk the interpersonal vulnerability of a character-building exercise in the classroom. Goes into depth on how the presenter implemented and improved psychological safety for students over four years of using a research-informed assignment for developing resilience, adaptability, and openness to others. Discusses how the presenter integrated faith into the assignment and reports on his own four-year qualitative study of what happened. The study reports student observations on the development of their resilience, adaptability, and openness and evaluates the role of psychological safety on the effectiveness of the assignment.

 

[TTU-03] Cookies for Cupbearers: An Exercise to Examine Differences in Perception (Concurrent Session/Best Practice)

Robert Holbrook, Ohio University

Dan Slater, Union University

 

As we consider what it means to be Cupbearers, we must realize that Christians seeking to influence others in business will necessarily have different perceptions than their non-Christian counterparts. Our pedagogical paper describes an experiential exercise for exploring perceptual influence factors to understand how individuals may differ in their perceptions.

 

[TTU-04] Exploring How International Business Short-term Travel Studies Can Be a Stepping-stone for Personal and Spiritual Transformation (Concurrent Session)

Brian Albright, Trinity Western University

Brian ‘t Hart, Trinity Western University

 

This trip to Kenya combined multiple strategies, including partnering with African university students; exploring government, social enterprise, and nonprofit roles; and viewing “the whole picture” from the village to slums, across 10+ industries, engaging with both Kenyans and expats. Students’ reflection on self-interest, corruption, and poverty showed the most change.

 

[TTU-05] Empowering Students to Shape the Future: Reflections of Graduating Business Majors Regarding How Well Their Christian University Education Prepared Them to Become Future Shapers (Panel)

Kevin Hughes, Mount Vernon Nazarene University

Melanie Timmerman, Mount Vernon Nazarene University

Jim Dalton, Mount Vernon Nazarene University

 

A panel presentation to discuss preparedness of graduating business majors as they head into their professional lives. Results from graduating students will be compared with those of business program alumni. The panelists have a combined century of academic and administrative experience, and all have had leadership roles in the CBFA.